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Giants in the vestibular field 

 J. Richard Ewald, 1855-1921

Ewald’s three laws:

1. A stimulation of the semicircular canal causes a movement of the eyes in the plane of the stimulated canal

2. In the horizontal semicircular canals, an ampullopetal endolymph movement cases a greater stimulation than an ampullofugal one.

3.  In the vertical semicircular canals, the reverse is true.

Robert Bárány, 1876-1936

MLA style: Robert Bárány – Biographical. Nobel Media AB 2019. Tue. 1 Oct 2019. <>

Rafael Lorente de Nó, 1902-1990

Rafael Lorente de Nó, born in Zaragoza, Spain, on the 8th of April, 1902, died in Tucson, USA, at the age of 88. His long and intensive scientific activity granted him the recognition of being one of the top neuroanatomists of the first half of the century and the founder of modern neurophysiology. He was the youngest pupil of Cajal, to whom he owed his outstanding skill in nervous system histological techniques and his deep knowledge of the structure of the central nervous system.

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